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However, Ingrid Bergman had just cut her hair short in preparation for filming For Whom the Bell Tolls , so she couldn't re-film the section with Steiner's song. Steiner actually first composed the theme from Since You Went Away while helping counterbalance Franz Waxman 's moody score for Rebecca.
With two exceptions, Steiner was less successful with the film noir genre due to the "modernistic" music that those films often require. The Big Sleep and The Letter were his best film noir scores. The main theme characterizes Leslie, the main character, by her tragic passion. Steiner portrays this scene through the jangling of wind chimes which crescendos as the wife emerges through opium smoke.
The jangling continues until the wife asks Leslie to take off her shawl, after which the theme blasts indicating the breaking point of emotions of these women. The theme for Philip Marlowe is beguiling and ironic, with a playful grace note at the end of the motif, portrayed mixed between major and minor. At the end of the film, his theme is played fully in major chords and finishes by abruptly ending the chord as the film terminates this was an unusual film music practice in Hollywood at the time.
Steiner uses the contrast of high strings and low strings and brass to emphasize Bogart's feelings for Bacall opposed with the brutality of the criminal world. Steiner had more success with the western genre of film, writing the scores for over twenty large-scale Westerns, most with epic-inspiring scores "about empire building and progress"  like Dodge City , The Oklahoma Kid , and The Adventures of Mark Twain Dodge City , starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland , is a good example of Steiner's handling of typical scenes of the Western genre.
Although his contract ended in , Steiner returned to Warner Bros. Steiner still preferred large orchestras and leitmotif techniques during this part of his career. There are also acetates of Steiner conducting the Warner Brothers studio orchestra in music from some of his film scores. Composer Victor Young and Max Steiner were good friends, and Steiner completed the film score for China Gate as Young had died before he could finish it.
The credit frame reads: Steiner wrote into his seventies, ailing and near blind, but his compositions "revealed a freshness and fertility of invention. The memorable instrumental theme composed by Steiner spent nine weeks at 1 on the Billboard Hot singles chart in in an instrumental cover version by Percy Faith.
In , Steiner began writing his autobiography , which, although completed, was never published, and is the only source available on Steiner's childhood. His lack of work in the last years of his life were due to Hollywood's decreased interest in his scores caused by new film producers and new taste in film music.
Another contribution to his declining career was his failing eyesight and deteriorating health, which caused him to reluctantly retire. Max Steiner died of congestive heart failure in Hollywood, aged Steiner explains that in the early days of sound, producers avoided underscoring music behind dialogue, feeling that the audience would wonder where the music was coming from.
As a result, he notes that "they began to add a little music here and there to support love scenes or silent sequences. For example, a shepherd boy might play a flute along with the orchestra heard in the background or a random, wandering violinist might follow around a couple during a love scene. However, because half of the music was recorded on the set, Steiner says it led to a great deal of inconvenience and cost when scenes were later edited, because the score would often be ruined.
As recording technology improved during this period, he was able to record the music synced to the film and could change the score after the film was edited. Steiner explains his own typical method of scoring:. When a picture is finished and finally edited, it is turned over to me. Then I time it: I have the film put through a special measuring machine and then a cue sheet created which gives me the exact time, to a split second, in which an action takes place, or a word is spoken.
While these cue sheets are being made, I begin to work on themes for the different characters and scenes, but without regard to the required timing. During this period I also digest what I have seen, and try to plan the music for this picture.
Adult Film Star EscortsThere may be a scene that is played a shade too slowly which I might be able to quicken with a little animated music; or, to a scene that is too fast, I may be able to give a little more feeling by using slower music.
Or perhaps the music can clarify a character's emotion, such as intense suffering, which is not demanded or fully revealed by a silent close-up. Steiner often followed his instincts and his own reasoning in creating film scores. For example, when he chose to go against Selznick's instruction to use classical music for Gone With the Wind. It is my conviction that familiar music, however popular, does not aid the underlying score of a dramatic picture.
I believe that, while the American people are more musically minded than any other nation in the world, they are still not entirely familiar with all the old and new masters' works Of course there are many in our industry who disagree with my viewpoint. Scores from the classics were sometimes harmful to a picture, especially when they drew unwanted attention to themselves by virtue of their familiarity.
For example, films like — A Space Odyssey , The Sting and Manhattan , had scores that were easily recognized instead of having a preferred "subliminal" effect. Steiner, was among the first to acknowledge the need for original scores for each film. Steiner felt that knowing when to start and stop was the hardest part of proper scoring, since incorrect placement of music can speed up a scene meant to be slow and vice versa: I've always tried to subordinate myself to the picture.
A lot of composers make the mistake of thinking of film as a concert platform on which they can show off. This is not the place If you get too decorative, you lose your appeal to the emotions. My theory is that the music should be felt rather than heard. Although some cite Max Steiner as the inventor of the click track technique, he, along with Roy Webb were only the first to use the technique in film scoring.
Stalling and Scott Bradley used the technique first in cartoon music. The click-track allows the composer to sync music and film together more precisely. The technique involves punching holes into the soundtrack film based on the mathematics of metronome speed.
As the holes pass through a projector, the orchestra and conductor can hear the clicking sound through headphones, allowing them to record the music along the exact timing of the film. Popularized by Steiner in film music, this technique allowed Steiner to "catch the action", creating sounds for small details on screen.
With Steiner's background in his European musical training largely consisting of operas and operettas and his experience with stage music, he brought with him a slew of old-fashioned techniques that he contributed to the development of the Hollywood film score.
Although Max Steiner has been called, "the man who invented modern film music", Steiner claimed that, "the idea originated with Richard Wagner If Wagner had lived in this century, he would have been the No. He would also quote pre-existing, recognizable melodies in his scores such as national anthems.
Steiner was known and often criticized for his use of Mickey Mousing or "catching the action". This technique is characterized by the precise matching of music with the actions or gestures on screen. Steiner was criticized for using this technique too frequently.
One of the important principles that guided Steiner whenever possible was his rule: Every character should have a theme. A good example of how the characters and the music worked together is best exemplified by his score for The Glass Menagerie Another film which exemplifies the synchronizing of character and music is The Fountainhead The character of Roark, an idealist architect played by Gary Cooper:.
Steiner's theme for the hero is fraught with a true emotion and a genuine idealism and aspiration. It surges upward in 'masculine' style, whilst Roark's mistress's theme wends downwards in curves of typically feminine shapeliness He above, she traveling up in the workmen's elevator: The score brings dignity and grandeur to the picture.
In the same way that Steiner created a theme for each character in a film, Steiner's music developed themes to express emotional aspects of general scenes which originally lacked emotional content. In adding the music score to a picture, Max Steiner used a "spotting process" in which he and the director of the film would watch the film in its entirety and discuss where underscoring of diegetic music would begin and end.
For example, a character humming to himself is realistic music, and the orchestra might play his tune, creating a background music effect that ties into the film. Steiner was criticized for this technique as the awareness of the film music can often ruin the narrative illusion of the film. Steiner designed a melodic motion to create normal-sounding music without taking too much attention away from the film.
According to Steiner, there is, "no greater counterpoint The quadraphonic recordings were later digitally remastered for Dolby surround sound and released on CD. In Kurt London's Film Music , London expressed the opinion that American film music was inferior to European film music because it lacked originality of composition; he cited the music of Max Steiner as an exception to the rule.
Webb's score for Mighty Joe Young was reminiscent of Steiner. Composer David Raksin stated that the music of Korngold was, " Steiner was the one of the first composers to reintroduce music into films after the invention of talking films. His film King Kong modeled the method of adding background music into a movie. Now referred to as the "father of film music" or the "dean of film music", by the end of Steiner's career, he had written or arranged music for over three hundred films.
Bender established the Max Steiner Music Society with international membership, published journals and newsletters and a library of audio recordings. When the Steiner collection went to Brigham Young University in , the organization disbanded. The American Film Institute respectively ranked Steiner's scores for Gone with the Wind and King Kong 2 and 13 on their list of the 25 greatest film scores.
His scores for the following films were also nominated for the list:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Austrian-American composer. For Austrian actor and theater manager — , see Maximilian Steiner. For the pornographic actor with the pseudonym Max Steiner, see Max Hardcore. Leonette "Lee" Steiner m.
The Composer in Hollywood , "Max Steiner: Birth of an Era", Marion Boyars Publishers pp. Classical Hollywood Reader , Routledge p. Germans, Jews, and Antisemites: Trials of Emancipation , Cambridge Univ. The Invisible Art of Film Music: A Comprehensive History 2nd ed. The Music of the Movies. Max Steiner's Now, Voyager: A Film Score Guide.
The View from the Podium. Garden City, New York: Lee Library, Brigham Young University. Retrieved 7 June The Max Steiner Collection. Special Collections and Manuscripts, Harold B. Music for the Movies. S Barnes and Co. We Make The Movies. Composers and Careers in the Hollywood Film Industry.
New Brunswick, New Jersey: The Hollywood Film Music Reader. The Making of King Kong: The story behind a film classic. An Analysis of The Informer ". Major Composers, Techniques, Trends, These 'forbidden' films, increasing the levels of sex and violence in films, usually were screened in theatres that came to be known as 'grindhouses' - since they often served as burlesque strip joints.
There were fewer instances in which these films had to justify or claim that they had 'redeeming social value': Before sleazy sexploitation films became more common place, the early days of sexual cinema consisted mostly of crude, sexually-explicit 'stag' films, since they were normally low-grade film reels shown at 'mens-only' stag parties or in private clubs.
This hour-long film ushered in the age of 'nudie-cutie' films. Nudie-cuties always contained the same type of content: Another breakthrough, sexploitation film was also released soon thereafter - a 'Mr. Not Tonight, Henry - by producer Edward E. A Nip of Ginger A Dash of Mustard Russ Meyer went on to make four more "nudie-cutie" films during its prominent era, from to Within a short period of time, many more 'nudie cutie' films were released, such as Peter Perry's Kiss Me Quick!
It was a zany, monster comedy with exceptional cinematography by Laszlo Kovacs, with an incredulous plot about effeminate Sterilox Frank Coe from the Buttless Galaxy and the all-male planet Droopeter an example of the lame double-entendres who came to Earth and demented Dr. Breedlove's Max Gardens castle similar to the Frankenstein films to find the perfect female specimen for a race of servants - where he was introduced to a trio of gyrating buxom strippers in the laboratory.
These were accompanied by an onslaught of darker, more violent and rougher films. Splatter films emerged, such as the blood-dripping, splatter film offerings of the "Godfather of Gore" Herschell Gordon Lewis the first 'gore' film Blood Feast and Maniacs Russ Meyer's exploitative, campy, and often humorous low-budget 'skin-flicks' in the 60s and 70s 23 in total were filled with sex, nudity and then with 'rough' violence.
They seemed to focus almost entirely on well-endowed, curvaceous, take-charge Amazonian women with large breasts and slim waists in accidentally-funny, trashy, tasteless and often violent films. The cheesecake films with descriptive titles were populated by attractive, semi-porn stars such as Haji, Francesca "Kitten" Natividad, and Erica Gavin. The coming of hard-core "Porn Chic" in the early 70s spelled the end for Meyer's approach.
In the decade of the 60s until his death in at age 54 when he lost investment backing for his projects, Wood turned to writing sexy pulp novels, and to filming short porno 'loops' for coin-operated booths in sex shops. Wood's final film with the pseudonym Don Miller in the credits was the low-budget, occult porn or 'smut' film Necromania , subtitled A Tale of Weird Love, that was shot in less than a week, and made in two versions soft-core and hard-core.
It told the story of Danny and Shirley, a young couple who visited a mysterious necromancer named Madame Heles in her sex clinic and funeral parlor to solve the couple's sexual problems. The hands-on lessons they were taught in the simplistic, weird film involved a coven of witches, simulated sex with painted skulls, topless chanting and spells, and an extended sex scene in a coffin.
Images of lesbians on screen included 'dyke' or mannish stereotypes, such as sadistic prison matron Evelyn Harper in Caged! Female homosexuality re-emerged in a few films in the 60s, although it was again hampered by censorship. Films with female gays mostly told about their adverse struggles, hardships, and the prejudiced homophobic attitudes that they faced - and their own self-punishment.
The film still ambiguously only hinted at the forbidden, objectionable theme of lesbianism. As in many lesbian tales, in its finale, the self-loathing Shirley MacLaine character broke down and confessed how 'guilty' and 'sick and dirty' she felt about her feelings toward another teacher Audrey Hepburn , and she committed suicide by hanging herself when she realized that the lesbian rumors were true.
The first gay-friendly independent film with homoerotic content, the gay frontier romance Song of the Loon , was released with the tagline: Have you ever wondered about a love story between two men? It told about an ex-GI who became a blonde beauty and was transformed in the early s in a Denmark clinic from George Jorgensen Jr. Although it was respectful, it had howlingly bad acting, dialogue, and writing.
The poster proclaimed - "I couldn't live in a man's body! Changes in the Ratings System: The Abolition of the Hays Code. Due to pressures emerging against the archaic censorship body, its president Jack Valenti appointed in abolished the Hays Code in A new voluntary or advisory ratings system was established in , initially with four uniform ratings categories to be enforced by distributors and exhibitors including movie theaters: Soon afterwards in , the M rating was changed to GP General Patronage and then to PG meaning 'Parental Guidance Suggested' in , and the age restriction was raised from 16 to Most mainstream filmmakers would subsequently try to avoid a G-rating other than Disney's animations and true family fare in order to raise their ratings to PG - and thereby increase their desirability by adult audiences.
Many foreign film-makers chose to not submit their films to the ratings board, since their films didn't have widespread appeal anyway and would only play in arthouse venues. From the late 60s on, filmmakers could expect an R-rating for most examples of female nudity and breast-fondling, but X-ratings for oral sex and other explicit sex acts or depictions.
As recording technology improved during this period, he was able to record the music synced to the film and could change the score after the film was edited. Pee Fun Lovers s. Inzest auf der Voodoo Insel! Log in Sign up now. Petites chattes de l'est alternative title for Birthday Booty. Die Beichte der Rebecca S. Natural Born Pissers 27 , Dir. Petites coquines bulgares , Dir.
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