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About 27, of the islanders at the Census live on Majuro , which contains the capital. In , The UN also indicates a population density of per km 2 people per mi 2 and its projected population is 53, Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC , with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They eventually settled here. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August The islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall , who visited in The islands were historically known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij" Gifts from God. Spain claimed the islands in , and the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in They had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since Later, Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in , and they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands, particularly the Jaluit Company.
Nuclear testing began in and concluded in The US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in , a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. Marshall Islands has been a United Nations member state since With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy , as well as some fishing and agriculture ; aid from the United States represents a large percentage of the islands' gross domestic product.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency, though it has also created a cryptocurrency which it uses as legal tender. The majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in , are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China, Philippines , and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese , which is one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages , and English.
Evidence suggests that around 3, years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts. The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in , and the archipelago came to be known as " Los Pintados " "The Painted Ones ", possibly referring to the autochthonous people first found there , " Las Hermanas " "The Sisters" and " Los Jardines " "The Gardens" within the Spanish Empire , first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain , to then be administered directly by Madrid through the Captaincy General of the Philippines upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, and were generally considered part of the " Carolines " present-day Federated State of Micronesia, Palau, and the US Territories of Marianas and Guam, as well as the Marshall Islands themselves , or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas" "New Philippines".
The islands were mostly left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions documented in and during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were largely ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires Portugal and Castilian Spain in , and The archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern , after British explorer John Marshall , who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in , en route from Botany Bay to Canton two ships of the First Fleet , and started establishing German and British trading posts, not formally contested by Spain.
The Marshall Islands were formally claimed by Spain in through its capital in the East Indies, Manila , marking the start of several strategic moves by the Second Reich during the s and 80s to annex them claiming them to be "by chance unoccupied" .
This policy would culminate in a tense naval episode in , which did not degenerate into a conflict due to the poor readiness of Spain's naval forces and the unwillingness for open military action from the German side. The Japanese headquarters was established at the German center of administration, Jaluit. On January 31, American forces landed on Kwajalein atoll and U.
Marines and Army troops later took control of the islands from the Japanese on February 3, following intense fighting on Kwajalein and Enewetak atolls. From to , it served as the Pacific Proving Grounds for the United States and was the site of 67 nuclear tests on various atolls.
Nuclear testing began in on Bikini Atoll after residents were evacuated. Over the years, 67 weapon tests were conducted, including the megaton Castle Bravo hydrogen bomb test, which produced significant fallout in the region. The testing concluded in Over the years, just one of over 60 islands was cleaned by the US government, and the inhabitants are still waiting for the 2 billion dollars in compensation assessed by the Nuclear Claims Tribunal.
Many of the islanders and their descendants still live in exile, as the islands remain contaminated with high levels of radiation. A significant radar installation was constructed on Kwajalein atoll. On May 1, , in recognition of the evolving political status of the Marshall Islands, the United States recognized the constitution of the Marshall Islands and the establishment of the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
The constitution incorporates both American and British constitutional concepts. There have been a number of local and national elections since the Republic of the Marshall Islands was founded. The United Democratic Party, running on a reform platform, won the parliamentary election, taking control of the presidency and cabinet.
Banana Republic Walnut CreekDespite the constitution, the government was largely controlled by Iroij.
It was not until , following political corruption allegations, that the aristocratic government was overthrown, with Imata Kabua replaced by the commoner Kessai Note. The Marshall Islands sit atop ancient submerged volcanoes rising from the ocean floor, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia ,  north of Nauru and Kiribati , east of the Federated States of Micronesia , and south of the disputed U.
Twenty-four of the atolls and islands are inhabited. Atolls are uninhabited due to poor living conditions, lack of rain, or nuclear contamination. The uninhabited atolls are:. The average altitude above sea level for the entire country is 7 feet 2. In protected waters, all shark fishing is banned and all by-catch must be released.
However, some have questioned the ability of the Marshall Islands to enforce this zone. The Marshall Islands also lays claim to Wake Island. The climate has a dry season from December to April and a wet season from May to November. Many Pacific typhoons begin as tropical storms in the Marshall Islands region, and grow stronger as they move west toward the Mariana Islands and the Philippines.
Due to its very low elevation, the Marshall Islands are threatened by the potential effects of sea level rise. Population has outstripped the supply of freshwater, usually from rainfall. The threat of drought is commonplace throughout the island chains. Crabs include hermit crabs , and coconut crabs.
Most birds found in the Marshall Islands, with the exception of those few introduced by man, are either sea birds or a migratory species. Sea birds include the black noddy and the white tern. There are about species of fish, of which are reef fish. Historical population figures are unknown.
In , the population was estimated at about 10, In the Census , the number of island residents was 53, Over two-thirds of the population live in the capital, Majuro and Ebeye , the secondary urban center, located in Kwajalein Atoll. This excludes many who have relocated elsewhere, primarily to the United States. The Compact of Free Association allows them to freely relocate to the United States and obtain work there.
Most of the residents are Marshallese, who are of Micronesian origin and migrated from Asia several thousand years ago. A minority of Marshallese have some recent Asian ancestry, mainly Japanese. About one-half of the nation's population lives on Majuro , the capital, and Ebeye, a densely populated island.
Life on the outer atolls is generally traditional. The official languages of the Marshall Islands are English and Marshallese. Both languages are widely spoken. See Health in the Marshall Islands. The government of the Marshall Islands operates under a mixed parliamentary-presidential system as set forth in its Constitution. Majuro , the capital atoll, elects five senators.
The President, who is head of state as well as head of government, is elected by the 33 senators of the Nitijela. Four of the five Marshallese presidents who have been elected since the Constitution was adopted in have been traditional paramount chiefs. In January , senator Hilda Heine was elected by Parliament as the first female president of the Marshall Islands; previous president Casten Nemra lost office after serving two weeks in a vote of no confidence.
Legislative power lies with the Nitijela. The upper house of Parliament, called the Council of Iroij , is an advisory body comprising twelve tribal chiefs. The executive branch consists of the President and the Presidential Cabinet, which consists of ten ministers appointed by the President with the approval of the Nitijela.
The twenty-four electoral districts into which the country is divided correspond to the inhabited islands and atolls. There are currently four political parties in the Marshall Islands: The following senators are in the legislative body:. It gives islanders the right to emigrate to the United States and to work there.
The ship had been chartered by Germany's Rickmers Ship Management, which stated that the ship contained no special cargo and no military weapons. The ship was reported to be under the control of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard according to the Pentagon. Tensions escallated in the region due to the intensifying of Saudi-led coalition attacks in Yemen.
The Pentagon reported that the destroyer USS Farragut and a maritime reconnaissance aircraft were dispatched upon receiving a distress call from the ship Tigris and it was also reported that all 34 crew members were detained. US defense officials have said that they would review U. It was reported in May that Tehran would release the ship after it paid a penalty.
Lomor is one of 22 Pacific Forum patrol vessels Australia provided to smaller nations in the Pacific Forum. While some other nations' missions for their vessels include sovereignty, protection, the terms of the Compact of Free Association restrict Lomor to civilian missions, like fishery protection and search and rescue.
Although the ancient skills are now in decline, the Marshallese were once able navigators , using the stars and stick-and-shell charts. The Marshall Islands have a small club league, including Koober as the most successful club. One tournament was held by Play Soccer Make Peace.
There is a small Football Association on the island of Majuro. The sport of football in its growth is new to the Marshall Islands. The Marshall Islands does not have a national football team presently. The Marshall Islands is the only sovereign country in the world that does not have a record of a national football match.
Softball and Baseball is held under one sports federation in the Marshall Islands. The President is Jeimata Nokko Kabua. The islands have few natural resources, and their imports far exceed exports. Agricultural products include coconuts, tomatoes, melons, taro, breadfruit, fruits, pigs and chickens.
Industry is made of the production of copra and craft items, tuna processing and tourism. The International Monetary Fund reported in mid that the economy of the Republic had expanded by about 0. Growth is expected to rise to about 1. In , the Republic of Marshall Islands passed the Sovereign Currency Act , which made it the first country to issue their own cryptocurrency and certify it as legal tender; the currency is called the "sovereign".
The Marshall Islands plays a vital role in the international shipping industry as a flag of convenience for commercial vessels. Unlike some flag countries, there is no requirement that a Marshallese flag vessel be owned by a Marshallese individual or corporation. Following the seizure of the MV Maersk Tigris , the United States announced that its treaty obligation to defend the Marshall Islands did not extend to foreign-owned Marshallese flag vessels at sea.
As a result of ship-to-ship transfers by Marshallese flag tanker vessels, the Marshall Islands have statistically been one of the largest importers of crude oil from the United States, despite the fact that the islands have no oil refining capacity. In , the Marshall Islands joined the International Labour Organization , which means its labour laws will comply with international benchmarks.
This may impact business conditions in the islands. United States government assistance is the mainstay of the economy. Marshallese land owners receive rent for the base. Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms. The livestock consists primarily of pigs and chickens. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, fish processing, and copra.
Majuro is the world's busiest tuna transshipment port in the world, with transshipments totaling , tons in In , a private company built a tuna loining plant with more than employees, mostly women. But the plant closed in after a failed attempt to convert it to produce tuna steaks, a process that requires half as many employees.
Operating costs exceeded revenue, and the plant's owners tried to partner with the government to prevent closure. But government officials personally interested in an economic stake in the plant refused to help. On September 15, , Witon Barry of the Tobolar Copra processing plant in the Marshall Islands capital of Majuro said power authorities, private companies, and entrepreneurs had been experimenting with coconut oil as alternative to diesel fuel for vehicles , power generators , and ships.
Coconut trees abound in the Pacific's tropical islands. Copra , the meat of the coconut , yields coconut oil 1 liter for every 6 to 10 coconuts. In , solar home systems of Wp each were installed on Ailinglaplap Atoll, sufficient for limited electricity use. The Ministry of Education is the education agency of the islands.
In the school year the country had elementary schools and 13 secondary schools. There were 27 private elementary schools and 1 private high school. Christian groups operated most of the private schools. Historically the Marshallese population was taught in English first with Marshallese instruction coming later, but this was reversed in the s to keep the islands' cultural heritage and so children could write in Marshallese.
Now English language instruction begins in grade 3. Socioeconomic Transition and Health that this could potentially weaken the children's English skills. There are two tertiary institutions operating in the Marshall Islands, the College of the Marshall Islands  and the University of the South Pacific. The FM stations are BBC World is broadcast on AFRTS stations include From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
English ". English Marshallese. Main article: History of the Marshall Islands. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Main articles: Geography of the Marshall Islands , Administrative divisions of the Marshall Islands , and Effects of climate change on island nations.
List of birds of the Marshall Islands. Demographics of the Marshall Islands. Religion in the Marshall Islands. Politics of the Marshall Islands. Further information: Culture of the Marshall Islands. Sports in the Marshall Islands. See also: List of football clubs in the Marshall Islands.
Economy of the Marshall Islands. Transportation in the Marshall Islands. Geography portal Oceania portal Micronesia portal Marshall Islands portal. During the Cretaceous period, about to 66 million years ago, most of what are now the central plains and the southeast of the United States were covered by shallow seas. Tiny marine plankton grew in those seas, and their carbonate skeletons accumulated into massive chalk formations.
That chalk eventually became a fertile soil highly suitable for growing crops. The Black Belt arc was the shoreline of one of those seas, where large amounts of chalk had collected in the shallow waters. Before the 19th century, this region was a mosaic of prairies and oak-hickory woods.
In the s and s, the region was identified as prime land for upland cotton plantations. Short-staple cotton did well here, and its profitable processing was made possible by invention of the cotton gin. It grew better in the upland regions than did the long-staple cotton of the Low Country. Ambitious migrant planters moved to the area in a land rush called Alabama Fever.
Many brought slaves with them from the Upper South , or purchased them later in the domestic slave trade , resulting in the forced migration of an estimated one million workers to the Deep South. The Black Belt region became one of the cores of an expanding cotton plantation system that spread through much of the American Deep South.
Eventually, the term Black Belt was used to describe the larger area of the South with historic ties to slave plantation agriculture and the cash crops of cotton, rice , sugar , and tobacco. After the American Civil War and Emancipation, most freedmen continued to work on plantations, generally by a system of sharecropping.
The poverty of the South and decline in agricultural prices after the war caused suffering for planters and workers both. Although this had been a richly productive region, the agricultural economy was depressed in the late 19th century; by the early 20th century, there was a general economic collapse of the region. Among its many causes were continued depressed cotton prices, over-reliance on agriculture, soil erosion and depletion , the boll weevil invasion and subsequent collapse of the cotton economy, and the socially repressive Jim Crow laws.
With the decline of agriculture in generating wealth, what had been one of the nation's wealthiest and most politically powerful regions became one of the poorest. But, after regaining power in the state legislatures and ending Reconstruction, at the end of the 19th century white Democrats in the former Confederate states completed disfranchising most blacks and many poor whites by passing new constitutions that provided for an array of discriminatory voter registration and electoral rules.
They did not lose any seats in congressional apportionment, which was based on total state populations, despite their disfranchisement of many of their citizens. This allowed the Democrats to accumulate seniority in Congress, where they acquired important committee chairmanships and exercised outsized political power for decades. The South became a one-party region, and whites controlled all Congressional representation allocated for the full population, although in many areas, the majority of residents could not vote.
Whites exercised political power outsize to their numbers, as Democrats continued to have a one-party system through disfranchisement of blacks through much of the 20th century. They controlled a disproportionate number of seats in Congress, gaining seniority and thereby control of important committees. In the South and elsewhere, many states suffered malapportionment of state and congressional representatives, as rural areas had retained political control when state legislatures refused to redistrict long after demographic and economic shifts increasing population in urban areas.
Lynchings were frequent in this region as whites used violence to impose white supremacy. Rates of lynching were high at times of economic stress and, annually, when it was time to settle accounts for sharecropping. The southern states passed Jim Crow laws establishing racial segregation in public facilities.
During the first half of the 20th Century, up until , a total of 6. They first migrated to the urban Northeast and Midwest for jobs and other opportunities during World War I and the Roaring '20s because of European immigration being cut off by the war as well as the black flight from racial violence and Jim Crow laws in the South. The second wave of the migration began shortly during World War II and lasted to , as hundreds of thousands of blacks migrated to the West Coast and some other Western states for jobs related to the growing defense industries and post-World War II economic boom.
Because of Jim Crow laws and disfranchisement, African-American residents of the old Black Belt became supporters of the midth-century Civil Rights Movement , seeking exercise of their constitutional rights as citizens. Black citizens have achieved many political and social gains since the late 20th century as a result of the civil rights movement , including the right to vote.
But, due to the marginal rural economies, the Black Belt remains one of the nation's poorest and most distressed areas. Most of the area continues to be rural, with a diverse agricultural economy, including peanut and soybean production on large, industrial-scale farms. These are highly mechanized, requiring few workers.
There have been many changes in the social, economic, and cultural developments in the South since the late 20th century. Some blacks have considered the Black Belt as a kind of "national territory" for African Americans within the United States, and the s some activists proposed self-determination in the area, up to and including the right to independence.
The New Great Migration of educated blacks returning to the Black Belt since the late 20th century is not evenly distributed throughout the South; primary destinations are those states with cities having the most job opportunities, especially Maryland , Virginia , North Carolina , Tennessee , Georgia , Florida , and Texas.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Black Belt disambiguation. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved
Ambitious migrant planters moved to the area in a land rush called Alabama Fever. In , Maxine and Lowell adopted their daughter, Charlene. Steven farmed with his family and eventually took over operations of the family farm where his spent his entire life. North Carolina Charlotte. She did needlepoint, and loved flowers, especially the summer mixes.
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- About one-half of the nation's population lives on Majuro , the capital, and Ebeye, a densely populated island.
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At the time of his death, Jim was serving his second term as the Mayor of Greene. Virginia Beach. Los Angeles.